APPEARANCE AND REALITY: The Two Truths in the Four Buddhist Tenet Systems by Guy Newland
When seeking to understand Buddhism, where should one start? When the Dalai Lama was asked, he suggested that for many Westerners, the two truths, conventional truth and ultimate truth, is the best place to start. When the Buddha awoke, he saw the ultimate reality of things just as they are. There are shifting appearances and conventions, and then there is the mystery of things just as they are. Each system of Buddhist philosophy has its own way of explaining what these two truths are and how they relate to one another. In exploring these systems, we are asking: What is real? This is not an idle intellectual question, but a matter which cuts to the heart of our life. "Professor Newland's intellectually engaging examination of the four Buddhist tenet systems navigates the maze of complex theories that must be mastered to understand each system's contribution to the whole."--John Tigue, Ph.D., for Explorations
THE TWO TRUTHS by Khenpo Tsultrim Gyamtso Rinpoche, fore. by Khenchen Thrangu Rinpoche
The way to understand the Buddha's teachings is to see that they are divided into either the three yanas, or the four philosophical tenets. For those who wish to know the view or the philosophy of Buddhism then the best way to learn it is to know the differences between the views of the four philosophical tenets. When the Buddha made these presentations of the different philosophical views, the point was to allow people to investigate with their own intelligence the various teachings and in that way to become very skilled in the different philosophical views and to be able to learn how to analyze things for oneself. Therefore what Khenpo Tsultrim presents here is the path of reason, the presentation of the two truths by the different philosophical tenets which leads one from a common understanding of what is real to ever more subtle understandings which can eventually lead to that which is beyond the intellect.
If Bodhisattvas see no real sentient beings, no real suffering, how is it they are moved by great compassion? Much of Mahayana Buddhist philosophy is a quest to answer this question by articulating a middle way: a view of existence sturdy enough to sustain a coherent ethical system without betraying Buddha 's vision of emptiness (sunyata). Buddhist perspectives on ethics and emptiness center on the distinction between two truths-the convential and the ultimate. Newland's work lays out the Madhyamika philosophy of two truths as seen through the eyes of Tibetan scholar-yogis of the Geluk-ba order.
The practice and theory of Tibetan Buddhist logic and epistemology is the focus of this clear and thorough exposition. Debate is the investigative technique used throughout Tibetan education to sharpen analytical capacities and convey philosophical concepts- it is essential to master the procedure of debate. Using a debate manual by Pur-bu-jok Jam-ba-gya-tso (1825-1901) as its basis, Daniel Perdue covers elementary debate and demonstrates its application to a variety of secular and religious educational contexts. The translation is supplied with annotations on procedure and content drawn from Tibetan teachers expert in debate.
VADANYANA, The Nyaya Buddhist Controversy by Chinchore
Vadanyaya is an important work by Dharmakirti on the theory of debate. The work is devoted to the rules of victory and defeat in debate. Dharmakirti has used the Nyaya account of debate, not only as a purvapaksa, a position ot be refuted, but also, at aleast partly, as a raw material for reconstruction. His criticism of Nyaya is not purely destrictuve but is has a consturctive aspect also. He gives his own classification of along with their definitions, in the first half of this work. In the second half he devotes his work to the criticism of Nyaya classification of nigrahasthanas.
VADANYAYA OF DHARMAKIRTI: The Logic of Debate by Dharmakirti, Pradeep P. Gokhale
Vadanyaya is an important work by Dharmakirti on the theory of debate. The work is devoted to the rules of victory and defeat in debate. Dharmakirti has used the Nyaya account of debate, not only as a purvapaksa, a position to be refuted, but also, at least partly, as a raw material for reconstruction. His criticism of Nyaya is not purely destructive but it has a constructive aspect also. He gives his own classification of nigrahasthanas along with their definitions, in the first half of his work. In the second half he devotes his work to the criticism of Nyaya classification of nigrahasthanas.
The present book contains critical text in Sanskrit, a detailed introduction, an English translation along with notes and a Glossary. The book is published in the Bibliotheca Indo-Buddhica Series.
DIALECTICAL PRACTICE IN TIBETAN PHILOSOPHICAL CULTURE: An Ethnomethodological Inquiry into Formal Reasoning by Kenneth Liberman
Tibetan Buddhist scholar-monks have long engaged in face-to-face public philosophical debates. This original study challenges Orientalist text-based scholarship, which has missed these lived practices of Tibetan dialectics. Kenneth Liberman brings these dynamic disputations to life for the modern reader through a richly detailed, turn-by-turn analysis of the monks' formal philosophical reasoning. He argues that Tibetan Buddhists deliberately organize their debates into formal structures that both empower and constrain thinking, skillfully using logic as an interactional tool to organize their reflections.
During his three years in residence at Tibetan monastic universities, Liberman observed and videotaped the monks' debates. He then transcribed, translated, and analyzed them using multimedia software and ethnomethodological techniques, which enabled him to scrutinize the local methods that Tibetan debaters use to keep their philosophical inquiries alive. His study shows the monks rely on such indigenous dialectical methods as extending an opponent's position to its absurd consequences, "pulling the rug out" from under an opponent, and other lively strategies. This careful investigation of the formal philosophical work of Tibetan scholars is a pathbreaking analysis of an important classical tradition.
The book is packaged with a CD-ROM that offers photographs of debates; a guide to the participants; a grammar of Tibetan debating, which includes sample propositions, responses, and strategies; the ethnomethods employed by debaters; videos of illustrative debates, complete with English translations, all analyzed in detail in the book; and an appendix comprising an interactive debate, glossary, manual, and illustrations.
A GARLAND OF LIGHT: Kambala's Alokamala trans. by Christian Lindtner
An overview of the Yogacara (mind-only) teachings in inspiring verse form. Written at a time when Yogacara and Madhyamaka are not inimical. Indeed, mind-only (cittamattra) is here equated with emptiness. One of the better introductions to Yogacara available.